- Misalignment with co-respondents above and below
- Occlusion of foramen through which nerves pass
- Pressure upon nerves
- Interference to transmission of mental impulse supply
BJ Palmer added a fifth element to the subluxation in 1933
5. 3 directional torque misalignment
A subluxation causes dis-ease and dis-ease left unchecked for a significant period of time leads to specific disease processes. In order for the subluxation to manifest into a sick condition, time is necessary.